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Superficial thrombophlebitis is a manifestation of thrombosis that involves the superficial venous system of the lower limb.
It is frequently underreported and is considered an insignificant entity. In some cases it may coexist with deep vein thrombosis, or may extend from the superficial system to the deep veins, increasing the risk of complications such as pulmonary embolism.
Diagnosis by ultrasound scanning is essential to exclude deep venous thrombosis and confirm the extent of the superficial thrombophlebitis. When superficial thrombophlebitis coexists with deep vein thrombosis, or when the main trunk of the Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin veins in the vicinity of the junctions is affected, treatment with low molecular weight heparins should be initiated.
The mean age at STP presentation is 60 years 3, and the older the patient is the fewer the risk factors required for its development. Thrombus extension from the superficial system into the deep veins may occur through the saphenofemoral and saphenopopliteal junctions and the perforating veins Figure 1.
Thrombus in the greater saphenous vein extending to the common femoral vein through the saphenofemoral junction. Thrombosed varicosity in the calf. In the literature, pulmonary embolism in patients Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin STP has been reported at rates varying from 1.
STP may develop during pregnancy, but because the prevalence is very low 0. The typical clinical presentation of STP includes local pain, warmth, erythema, and swelling, with the superficial vein becoming solid like a cord. Thrombosed greater saphenous trunk at the thigh: The vein is incompressible and dilated containing echolucent material fresh thrombus.
Greater saphenous vein with an old thrombus as characterized Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin learn more here presence of recanalization and echogenic material Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin its lumen. The treatment of STP varies greatly in clinical practice. Among patients in the POST study, a prospective epidemiologic study conducted in France, treatments included anticoagulation in therapeutic or prophylactic doses, vitamin K antagonists, elastic stockings, topical or oral use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs and surgery.
In a randomized study of patients, unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH and vitamin K antagonists were found to have equal efficacy and were superior to elastic compression or flush ligation combined with elastic compression in terms of STP extension at 3 months. A randomized, double-blind trial of patients 52 that compared LMWH enoxaparin 40 mg and 1.
Similar findings were reported in another open randomized trial involving patients. The use of high doses of unfractionated heparin twice daily seems to be superior to Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin doses, but is inferior to LMWH in prophylactic or therapeutic doses. The CALISTO trial was an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 3, patients 12 that compared subcutaneous fondaparinux 2.
Participants included hospitalized or nonhospitalized patients 18 years or older, with acute, symptomatic lower limb STP, at least 5 cm long, as confirmed by compression ultrasonography. Exclusion criteria were an interval between the onset of symptoms and planned randomization of more than 3 weeks; treatment for cancer within Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin previous 6 months; presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic DVT; Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin documented pulmonary embolism; STP associated with Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin or placement of an intravenous catheter; STP located within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction; and DVT or pulmonary embolism within the previous 6 months.
The primary efficacy outcome a composite of death from any cause or symptomatic pulmonary embolism, symptomatic DVT, or symptomatic extension to the saphenofemoral junction or symptomatic recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis at day 47 occurred in 0. Similar risk Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin were observed at day No difference was observed in Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin bleeding Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin the two groups.
However, several concerns were expressed in relation to this trial, especially when applying such treatment to any STP, because Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin the high cost of the therapy. Surgical treatment combined with elastic stockings is associated with a link rate of venous thromboembolism and progression of STP compared with elastic stockings alone.
The role of antibiotics is of no benefit in the management of STP 33,84 unless Thrombophlebitis und Aspirin cause of thrombosis is secondary to an indwelling intravenous catheter. Hirudoids and some topical agents piroxicam cream, piroxicam patch improve local symptoms, alleviating pain and local inflammatory signs, but there is no information on progression to DVT.
As far as treatment is concerned, LMWH in intermediate doses for at least 1 month or fondaparinux 2. For isolated STP at the below knee segment confined to varicosities, local application of heparinoids, NSAIDs and elastic stockings form an acceptable treatment option.
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